The Six Essential Skills
Miss Emma. Facebook Live Session 1
Reacting to the lesson
Applying the new skills
A 3 year old blending 13 phonemes
Every point in a child’s development of word-level reading is substantially affected by phonological awareness skills, from learning letter names all the way up to efficiently adding new, multisyllabic words to the sight vocabulary.
English uses an alphabetic writing system in which the letters, singly and in combination, represent single speech sounds. People who can take apart words into sounds, recognize their identity and put them together again have the foundation skill for using the alphabetic principle (Liberman, Shankweiler, & Liberman, 1989; Troia, 2004). Without phoneme awareness, students may be mystified by the print system and how it represents the spoken word.
Students who lack phoneme awareness may not even know what is meant by the term 'speech sound'
The ability to hear and manipulate phonemes plays a causal role in the acquisition of beginning reading skills (Smith, Simmons, & Kame'enui, 1998)
Children lacking phonemic awareness skills cannot:
group words with similar and dissimilar sounds (mat, mug, sun)
blend and split syllables (f oot)
blend sounds into words (m_a_n)
segment a word as a sequence of sounds (e.g., fish is made up of three phonemes, /f/ , /i/, /sh/)
detect and manipulate sounds within words (change r in run to s).
(Kame'enui, et. al., 1997)
These are skills needed to read and spell.
Phonemic awareness has been shown to be a very powerful predictor of later reading achievement. In fact, it [phonemic awareness] is a better predictor than more global measures such as IQ or general language proficiency. (Griffith and Olson, 1992)
The two best predictors of early reading success are alphabet recognition and phonemic awareness. (Adams, 1990)
Even before a student learns to read, we can predict with a high level of accuracy whether that student will be a good reader or a poor reader by the end of third grade and beyond (Good, Simmons, and Kame'enui, 2001; Torgesen, 1998, 2004)